Tariff Issues in Trade with the UK
All least developed countries and Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) process participating countries have now had the right to continued duty free-quota free access to the UK market in the post-Brexit period confirmed.
However currently for Kenya, Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire and Cameroon this is limited to an 18 month period after the UK has left the EU customs union and single market (through a special unilateral Transitional Protection Mechanism ), with a longer-term bilateral ‘UK-only’ trade agreement still needing to be negotiated and ratified by the governments of each of these countries.
Negotiations between the UK and the governments of these countries remain on-going. These negotiations face substantive regional trade policy complications which make the conclusion of a ‘UK-Only’ trade agreements a difficult process for the government of these countries.
The ACP countries falling under these different arrangements are listed below:
The Basis for Continued Duty-Free Quota-Free Access to the UK Market Under a No-Deal Brexit
|Rolled Over Everything but arms (EBA)
for Least Developed Countries (LDC) (Unilateral)
|LDCs (24th June 2017)||Angola*, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Zambia|
|Concluded Rolled Over Continuity Agreements Replacing:|
|The EU-Eastern & Southern Africa (ESA) EPA (31st Jan 2019)||Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, Zimbabwe|
|The EU-Pacific EPA (concluded 14th March)||Fiji, Papua New Guinea|
|The EU-CARIFORUM EPA (22nd March 2019)||Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, and Trinidad& Tobago, Haiti|
|The EU-SADC Group EPA (initialled 11 Sept & signed 10th Oct 2019)||Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Eswatini, South Africa, Mozambique|
|Transitional Protection Mechanism (Unilateral)|
|The West Africa ‘Stepping Stone’ EPAs||Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire|
|The Central African EPA||Cameroon|
|East African Community (EAC) - EU EPA||Kenya|
* shortly to be graduated out of LDC status
Despite the establishment of these arrangements, there remain a range of issues which still need to be addressed if disruptions to ACP exports of horticulture products to not only the UK market but also to and through EU27 countries are to be minimised.